The role of skilled professionals in cybersecurity has never been more critical. While advances in automation and technology have played an important part in strengthening organizations’ cyber defenses, truly effective security programs still require the addition of human experts. The continued importance of security professionals has been driven in large part by the evolution of cyberattacks. Behind every cyberthreat is a cybercriminal, and today’s advanced attacks often combine the latest technology with hands-on live hacking. Protecting against these human-led attacks requires human expertise. This comprehensive study provides brand new insights into the state of cybersecurity skills and resources across the globe. It reveals the realities facing IT teams when it comes to the human-led delivery of cybersecurity and explores how organizations are responding to the challenges they face.